The development and initial validation of The Irrational Performance Beliefs Inventory (iPBI)

Martin J. Turner, Mark S. Allen, Matthew J. Slater, Jamie B. Barker, Charlotte Woodcock, Chris G. Harwood, Ken McFayden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)


The growing use of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) in performance contexts (e.g., business, sport) has highlighted the absence of a contextually valid and reliable measure of irrational beliefs. 

This paper reports the development and initial validation of the Irrational Performance Beliefs Inventory (iPBI). The iPBI was developed to provide a validated measure of the four core irrational beliefs of REBT theory. Item development was completed in three stages comprising two expert panels and one novice panel, reducing and refining 176 items to 133. Then, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to refine the measure and reduce the number of items. 

A total of 665 business professionals completed the 133-item scale, alongside an established measure of irrational beliefs and a measure of negative emotion. A 28-item measure was developed (the iPBI) that showed an acceptable fit to the four-factor REBT structure. The iPBI correlated well with the established irrational beliefs measure, and with anxiety, depression, and anger, demonstrating concurrent and predictive validity. 

Further validation efforts are required to assess the validity and reliability of the iPBI in alternative samples in other performance-related contexts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)174-180
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Psychological Assessment
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 22 Apr 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • confirmatory factor analysis
  • irrational beliefs
  • negative emotion
  • REBT
  • scale development


Dive into the research topics of 'The development and initial validation of The Irrational Performance Beliefs Inventory (iPBI)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this