This chapter deals with the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) as both a political and legal institution. The CJEU has often been described as political because of its prominent role in developing EU law as well as promoting further integration within the EU through its judgments. The CJEU is made up of two individual courts. In the post-Brexit Court of Justice (ECJ) there are 27 judges plus 11 Advocates General, and on the General Court there are two judges from each member state. Scholarship on judicial politics lies at the intersection of law, social and political science. It theorises and empirically studies the relationships and balance of power between judiciary, the legislature and the executive. The lack of scrutiny over the EU institutions by the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) does not mean that its work is irrelevant. More gender-aware jurisprudence from either court could have a significant impact on the other as their relationship evolves.