It has been demonstrated that the relationship between religiosity and happiness varies according to the precise measures used and the samples studied. To examine further the generalisability of this association the present work examined the relationship between religiosity and happiness within the context of the distinction between subjective and psychological well-being. One hundred and thirty eight UK adults completed two measures of both religiosity (the 'Age Universal' Religious Orientation Scale [Intrinsic and Extrinsic subscales] and the Religious Coping Scale [Positive and Negative subscales]) and happiness (the Depression-Happiness Scale and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short-Form). In general, no significant associations were found between religiosity scores and happiness scores. However, both higher intrinsic orientation scores and positive religious coping were significantly associated with higher scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short-Form. It is proposed that these differential findings are consistent with the theoretical distinction between subjective and psychological well-being. It is suggested that when religiosity is related to happiness, it is related to psychological well-being, which is thought to reflect human development, positive functioning and existential life challenges.
- Religious coping
- Religious orientation