Reliability and construct validity of soccer skills tests that measure passing, shooting, and dribbling

Mark Russell, David Benton, Michael Kingsley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

97 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, we examined the reliability and construct validity of new soccer skills tests. Twenty soccer players (10 professional and 10 recreational) repeated trials of passing, shooting, and dribbling skills on different days. Passing and shooting skills required players to kick a moving ball, delivered at constant speed, towards one of four randomly determined targets. Dribbling required players to negotiate seven cones over 20m. Each trial consisted of 28 passes, 8 shots, and 10 dribbles. Ball speed, precision, and success were determined for all tests using video analysis. Systematic bias was small (9% in all measures) and all outcome measures were similar between trials. Test-retest reliability statistics were as follows: ball speed (passing, shooting, dribbling; coefficient of variation [CV]: 6.5%, 6.9%, 2.4%; ratio limits of agreement [RLOA]: 0.958x/divided by 1.091, 0.990x/divided by 1.107, 0.993x/divided by 1.039), precision (passing, shooting, dribbling; CV: 10.0%, 23.5%, 4.6%; RLOA: 0.956x/divided by 1.147, 1.030x/divided by 1.356, 1.000x/divided by 1.068), and success (passing, shooting, dribbling; CV: 11.7%, 14.4%, 2.2%; RLOA: 1.017x/divided by 1.191, 0.913x/divided by 1.265, 0.996x/divided by 1.035). Professional players performed better than recreational players in at least one outcome measure for all skills. These findings demonstrate the reliability and validity of new soccer skill protocols.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1399-1408
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • football
  • test?retest
  • technical
  • precision
  • speed


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