Precompetitive achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping among athletes

Adam R. Nicholls, John L. Perry, Luis Calmeiro

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    43 Citations (Scopus)


    Grounded in Lazarus's (1991, 1999, 2000) cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions, we tested a model of achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. We predicted that precompetitive achievement goals would be associated with appraisals, appraisals with emotions, and emotions with coping in our model. The mediating effects of emotions among the overall sample of 827 athletes and two stratified random subsamples were also explored. The results of this study support our proposed model in the overall sample and the stratified subsamples. Further, emotion mediated the relationship between appraisal and coping. Mediation analyses revealed that there were indirect effects of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, which indicates the importance of examining multiple emotions to reveal a more accurate representation of the overall stress process. Our findings indicate that both appraisals and emotions are just as important in shaping coping.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)433-445
    Number of pages13
    JournalJournal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
    Issue number5
    Publication statusPublished - 2014


    • Achievement goals
    • Challenge
    • Coping
    • Stress appraisals
    • Structural equation modeling
    • Threat


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