Due to its unique organization, the teleost pituitary is an ideal model in which to investigate the relationship of the nervous system with the pituitary endocrine cells. A light microscope immunocytochemical study of the sea bass pituitary revealed six different neuropeptides in nerve fibers which projected into the pituitary neurohypophysis and bordered the adenchypophysial cells. Double staining showed separate nerve fibers immunoreactive for corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), vasotocin (VT), somatostatin (SRIF), growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF), and neurotensin (NT) in the vicinity of the adrenocorticotropic hormone-releasing cells (ACTH-cells) in the rostral pars distalis (PD). In the proximal PD cholecystokinin (CCK)-, SRIF-, GRF-, and VT-immunoreactive fibers penetrated between the growth hormone-releasing cells (GH-cells). These results suggest a possible role for CCK, GRF, SRIF, and VT in the modulation of GH-cell activity, while the synthesis and/or secretion of the ACTH-cells might be affected by the release of VT, CRF, SRIF, GRF, and NT.