Latent Profiles of PTSD, anxiety and depression and association with trauma exposure within prison personnel

Russell Woodfield, Daniel Boduszek, Dominic Willmott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective
The aim of the study was to identify meaningful subtypes of anxiety, depression, and PTSD symptomology amongst Prison Personnel. A further aim was to estimate the association between anxiety, depression and PTSD class membership and typology of Prison Trauma Exposure (Self-Harm/Death, Violent, Environmental) age and years of service, and differentiations between male and female personnel.

Method
A non-probability convenience sample of 1995 Prison Personnel in the UK completed the Prison Personnel Trauma Measure (PPTM), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Civilian Version (PCL-C).

Results
Latent profile analysis revealed seven distinct classes in male personnel including a ‘heightened symptom’ (16.8%) and a ‘high symptom group’ (10.3%) and five distinct classes in female personnel including a ‘above moderate symptom group’ (28.4%) and a ‘high symptom group’ (18.1%). Multinomial logistic regression showed that male prison personnel in the ‘moderate with increased PTSD-C and low PTSD-B group’ and the ‘heightened symptom group’ were more likely to be exposed to environmental trauma, whereas male prison personnel in the ‘high symptom group’ were more likely to be exposed to environmental trauma, self-harm/death in prison and have significantly less years of service. Female prison personnel in the ‘moderate symptom group’ were more likely to be exposed to environmental and violent trauma, whereas in the ‘high symptom group’ females were more likely to be exposed to violent trauma.

Conclusion
Findings suggest distinctions between anxiety, depression and PTSD symptomology amongst male and female prison personnel and typology of prison trauma exposure. The significance of the present findings is discussed in relation to past and future research as well as policy implications and practice.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100268
JournalEuropean Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Volume6
Issue number3
Early online date15 Mar 2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2022

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