Pituitary glands were removed from Poecilia latipinna which had been maintained in onethird seawater and were incubated for 18 hr in media of either 300 mosmol/kg (OP300) or 340 mosmol/kg (OP340) osmotic pressure for measurement of both total and newly synthesised prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) release. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) at 100 ng/ml increased release of total and newly synthesised PRL into OP340, but not into OP300, medium. Conversely, 300 ng/ml of somatotropin-release-inhibiting factor (SRIF) inhibited total and newly synthesised PRL release into OP300, but not into OP340, medium. At 1000 ng/ml, SRIF inhibited total PRL release into both media, but newly synthesised PRL release was reduced significantly only in OP300 medium. The release of GH was unaffected by 100 ng/ml TRH in OP300 medium, but both total and newly synthesised GH release were enhanced by this dose in OP340 medium. SRIF at 300 ng/ml reduced total GH release into OP300 medium, whereas the release of newly synthesised GH was inhibited in OP340 medium. At 1000 ng/ml, SRIF inhibited total GH release into both media, but release of the newly synthesised hormone was not significantly altered. These results suggest that TRH can stimulate and SRIF inhibit both PRL and GH release by Poecila pituitaries, but that these effects may be modulated by plasma osmotic pressure.