Factorial validity of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48

John L. Perry, Peter J. Clough, Lee Crust, Keith Earle, Adam R. Nicholls

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    87 Citations (Scopus)


    The purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity of the Mental Toughness Questionnaire-48 (Clough, Earle, & Sewell, 2002). In total, 8207 participants (male n= 4019, female n= 3922, unspecified = 266) aged between 16 and 68. years (M= 37.00, SD= 12.09) completed the MTQ48. Model fit was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling, in addition to the robust maximum likelihood estimator. Overall, our results support the factorial validity of the MTQ48 and indicate that the MTQ48 is a robust psychometric measure of mental toughness. Along with previous data, which supports the internal validity of the MTQ48 in addition to results of this study, it would appear that the MTQ48 is an acceptable method of assessing mental toughness.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)587-592
    Number of pages6
    JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
    Issue number5
    Early online date20 Dec 2012
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013


    • Confirmatory factor analysis
    • Mental toughness
    • Personality
    • Structural equation modeling


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