Examining the roles young people fulfil in five types of cyber bullying

Lucy Betts, Athanasios Gkimitzoudis, Karin Spenser, Thom Baguley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


he roles that young people fulfill in face-to-face bullying have been well documented and there is some evidence that young people take on similar roles in cyber bullying. A person-centered analytical approach was adopted to identify the roles that young people fulfill across five different types of cyber bullying assessed for up to nine media. Four hundred and forty (281 females and 154 males) 16- to 19-year-olds completed measures to assess their involvement in various types of cyber bullying and across the various media. Cluster analysis identified four distinct groups: “not involved,” “rarely victim and bully,” “typically victim,” and “retaliator.” Two thirds of the sample reported some involvement in cyber bullying. Distinct patterns emerged for each group according to the type of cyber bullying. The lack of a clear bully group and the presence of the retaliator group strengthen the growing evidence base that young people may cyber bully others as a mechanism of retaliation when they are the victim of cyber bullying.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1080-1098
JournalJournal of Social and Personal Relationships
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 14 Sept 2016
Externally publishedYes


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