Evaluating the social impacts of inclusion through a multi-method research design

Elias Avramidis, Alison Wilde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Although the development of policy towards inclusive education in the UK is well advanced, very little is known about the social outcomes of existing inclusive arrangements in primary settings. A recent study sought to fill this gap by systematically investigating the social impacts of inclusion on children accredited with Special Educational Needs (SEN) and their mainstream peers, while also identifying those educational practices contributing to increased social interaction and the development of friendships. Following a brief review of earlier research efforts and theoretical understandings that informed the design of our study, we present the mixed methodology employed which combined sociometric and psychometric techniques with more ecological qualitative methods. The ways in which these diverse methods complemented each other are discussed alongside wider methodological challenges germane to the research. We conclude by advocating the utilisation of interconnected methods, within a coherent research design of the sort described here. © 2009, Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)323-334
Number of pages12
JournalEducation 3-13
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Inclusion
  • Inclusive education
  • Integration
  • Mixed methods research
  • Multi-method research
  • Social participation


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