Ethnographic research

Icarbord Tshabangu, Stefano Ba’, Silas Memory Madondo

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This chapter considers some of the essential features of ethnography as a qualitative method. The main theoretical foundations of ethnographic approach are explained; however, the emphasis is mainly on how ethnography is done. Thus, the techniques for collecting data used by ethnographers take the central part of this chapter with some special attention to the methodology of observation. Through many examples, the authors describe the various forms of observation as a social research method. It is useful to illustrate the approach of the ethnographer through the metaphor of the “stranger” because “reflexivity” is an important part of the qualitative approach of ethnography. The practicalities of recording the field research and writing memos are fully considered in conjunction with practical suggestions and conceptual discussion, including the writing up of the final text which should be the conclusion of a consequential process, rather than a separate entity.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationResearch anthology on innovative research methodologies and utilization across multiple disciplines
Place of PublicationHershey , Pennsylvania
PublisherIGI Global
Number of pages15
ISBN (Electronic)9781668438824
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022


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