Pituitaries from male and female mollies were incubated with varying amounts of mammalian LH-RH, arginine vasotocin, dopamine, or serotonin for 18 hr. Ultrastructural differences between control and experimentally treated glands were used to define the direct effects of these neurohormones and neurotransmitters on the gonadotrophic cells of the adenohypophysis. The effects varied in intensity according to the sex and reproductive state of the donor animal. LH-RH stimulated gonadotrophin secretion by the gonadotrophs, as did vasotocin, although to a much lesser extent and with noticeable differences between the sexes. Dopamine inhibited secretion by basally active gonadotrophs and probably from active cells also, although to a lesser extent. Serotonin mildly stimulated secretion at all stages in both sexes. The results of this study indicate the possible involvement of neurohypophysial octapeptides and of monoamines in the direct control of the gonadotroph of Poecilia latipinna.