Design and validation of a questionnaire about perceptions of elite athletes: the dual career of university students

Antonio Sánchez-Pato, Antonio Calderón, José Luis Arias-Estero, Juan Alfonso García-Roca, Emanuel Isidori, Julie Brunton, Andrew Decelis, Athanasios Koustelios, Oliver Mallia, Jon Radcliffe, Matthew Sedgwick

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    The purpose of this paper was to design and validate a questionnaire about the perceptions of elite student-athletes at university relating to their dual career. In the initial creation of the instrument, constructs were defined and three dimensions were established: academic life, sporting life and sports tutor. After a process of ‘back translation’, experts (n = 8) agreed the construct to ensure content validity, the dimensions and the questionnaire questions. Statistical analysis of the items showed adequate comprehension to confirm content validity of participants (n = 30). In construct validity (n = 73), the results showed correct psychometric quality, internal consistency, reliability and adequacy of the structural model. The instrument had evidence of external validity, since the results were congruent with the main findings of the research. This questionnaire was found to be a valid and reliable assessment instrument, consisting of 85 questions (in Spanish and English language), that enables the perception of elite student-athletes to be known about their dual career whilst at university.
    Original languageSpanish
    Pages (from-to)127-147
    JournalCultura, Ciencia y Deporte
    Issue number32
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2016


    • dual career
    • academic study and sport
    • learning process
    • tutoring for student- athletes

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