Background There is a burgeoning literature examining perceptions of being defeated or trapped in different psychiatric disorders. The disorders most frequently examined to date are depression, anxiety problems, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidality. Aims To quantify the size and consistency of perceptions of defeat and entrapment in depression, anxiety problems, PTSD and suicidality, test for differences across psychiatric disorders, and examine potential moderators and publication bias. Method Random-effects meta-analyses based on Pearson's correlation coefficient r. Results Forty studies were included in the meta-analysis (n=10,072). Perceptions of defeat and entrapment were strong (around r=0.60) and similar in size across all four psychiatric disorders. Perceptions of defeat were particularly strong in depression (r=0.73). There was no between-study heterogeneity; therefore moderator analyses were conducted in an exploratory fashion. There was no evidence of publication bias. Limitations Analyses were cross-sectional, which precludes establishing temporal precedence or causality. Some of the meta-analyses were based on relatively small numbers of effect sizes, which may limit their generalisability. Conclusions Perceptions of defeat and entrapment are clinically important in depression, anxiety problems, PTSD, and suicidality. Similar-sized, strong relationships across four different psychiatric disorders could suggest that perceptions of defeat and entrapment are transdiagnostic constructs. The results suggest that clinicians and researchers need to become more aware of perceptions of defeat and entrapment.
- Human defeat
- Posttraumatic stress disorder